Konstantin Fedin1, Olga Fazullina2, Vadim Klimontov3, Yuriy Kolesnikov4
1Laboratory of seismic dynamic analysis Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics of Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences; IPGG SB RAS, email@example.com
2Laboratory of Endocrinology Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Lymphology – Branch of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org
3Laboratory of Endocrinology Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Lymphology – Branch of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, email@example.com
4Laboratory of seismic dynamic analysis Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics of Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences; IPGG SB RAS, KolesnikovYI@ipgg.sbras.ru
Osteoporosis is a non-infectious epidemic with severe medical and economic consequences. The main complication of reducing bone mineral density is the occurrence of fractures due to minimal trauma. Fractures, in turn, require long-term treatment, subsequent rehabilitation, and can often lead to disability. In addition, cases of fractures of the proximal femur are aggravated by the presence of deaths during the first year in a large number of patients. Thus, early diagnosis of osteoporosis is important for verifying the diagnosis and timely prescribing anti-osteoporotic therapy to reduce the risk of low-energy fractures.
Currently, there are three main methods used for densitometry. Quantitative computed tomography is very accurate, but requires significant material costs, also the disadvantages include the long duration of the procedure, the received dose of x-ray radiation and the inability to evaluate the dynamics in the future. Quantitative computed tomography can only be performed in a specialized center, as performed using tomography equipment having stringent requirements for installation and operation.
Among the advantages of quantitative ultrasonic densitometry, one can note the absence of contraindications associated with exposure to x-ray radiation, the short time spent on research, low cost. Disadvantages – there is no quantitative data that allows dynamic assessment, low accuracy, evaluation only in the peripheral parts of the skeleton (calcaneus and radius), which does not allow extrapolating data to all skeleton bones as a whole.
The \”gold standard\” of diagnosis is currently dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The method has good reproducibility, accuracy, there are quantitative indicators to assess the state of bone tissue in dynamics. In modern densitometers, it is also possible to study bone microarchitectonics using special software. Contraindications to the conduct are common to all x-ray research methods. The disadvantages include the x-ray principle, lack of mobility, high cost of equipment.